What is the difference between battery cells, battery modules and battery packs?

 What is the difference between battery cells, battery modules and battery packs?

Some newcomers to the industry often confuse some concepts, such as battery modules and battery packs. So what is the difference between battery cells, battery modules, and battery packs?

The battery cells form battery modules, and the battery modules form battery packs.

The battery cell is the smallest unit that makes up the battery. The battery cell usually consists of a positive electrode, a negative electrode, a separator and an electrolyte shell. Generally, those that can produce power battery cells are large companies, such as CATL, Guoxuan Hi-Tech, Yiwei Lithium Energy, etc.

In terms of shape, battery cell can be divided into square and cylindrical shapes.

From the electro-hydraulic material, it can be divided into polymer lithium-ion batteries and liquid lithium-ion batteries.

The battery module connects the cells in series and parallel to achieve the predetermined required voltage and capacity. At the same time, the module can support, fix and protect the battery core. But sometimes in order to reduce weight and increase battery life, some car companies omit modules. For example, BYD's blade battery and Tesla's 4680 battery are combined without modules.

Battery pack, also called battery PACK, is the final product composed of battery modules, including battery modules, BMS battery management system, battery pack box and other auxiliary components, such as thermal management system, fuses, relays, and shunts , connectors, smoke sensors, maintenance switches, etc. The BMS is the nerve center (brain) of the battery pack.